انتشار مجله در شیلی، کلمبیا و ونزوئلا: پاسخ دانشگاه به فشارها و گرایشها
Abstract: Background. This project was motivated by the impressive growth that scholarly/scientific journals in Latin America1 have shown in recent decades. That advance is attributed to global, regional, and national pressures and trends, as well as a response to obstacles that scholars/researchers from the region face to be published in prestigious journals and journals to be included in mainstream indexes. This had not been studied at the institutional level, that is, the universities where most of the journals are published. Purpose. Analyze policies, arrangements, and actions that Chilean, Colombian, and Venezuelan universities have implemented to support the publication of journals in response to global, regional, and national trends and pressures. Methods. This qualitative study analyzed 24 interviews conducted with journal editors, university authorities, and national experts from 12 universities in Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela. The model of allomorphism developed by Massimiliano Vaira (2004) was used to analyze the findings. Findings and conclusions. (1) All universities in the study have developed policies and arrangements to support the publication of journals, including funding, training, and open access electronic publication. (2) Editors’ workload has increased and their job is considered very important; however, it is not recognized in salary systems. (3) Institutional actors participating in the publication of journals are emerging: university journal coordinators, libraries, ICT units, and to a less extent, press units. (4) National factors influencing the publication of journals include political context, university accreditation, journal evaluation systems, ranking and/or funding systems, and university salary systems. (5) Regional directories, repositories, and indexes published in local languages have influenced the growth of journals (Latindex, RedALyC, SciELO, CLACSO, etc.). (6) International organizations, in particular the IADB, have given loans to the countries to develop science and technology. (7) Even though regional initiatives have gained relevance, Thomson Reuters’ indexes are still considered reference standards. However, new international actors/initiatives such as Scopus by Elsevier, the Open Journal System by the Public Knowledge Project, and other repositories and directories are becoming alternatives. 8) The imposition of publication models based on natural sciences, pressures to increase exogamy of publications, and languages barriers are still sources of tension. 1 Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), as a geographic region, includes countries in the continental portion and the islands. Reports usually relate LA&C to the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations unless clearly stating that they comprise other countries where those are not the dominant languages, such as Belize, Suriname, Guyana, or Haiti. In the present project, LA&C will be regarded as to the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries.