مفاهیم دوستی در گروه بلومزبری: جرج ادوارد مور، دیوید هربرت لارنس، ادوارد مورگان فورستر، و ویرجینیا وولف
Abstract: In this study I argue that the Bloomsbury Group’s notion of friendship was influenced by G. E. Moore’s philosophy of friendship, developed in “Achilles or Patroclus?” (1894) and Principia Ethica (1903), and the Great War. I posit that these dual influences were central to Lawrence, Forster, and Woolf’s representations of frustrated and melancholic friendship in their post-war novels: Women in Love (1920), A Passage to India (1924), and The Waves (1931). Lawrence rejected Moore’s notion of friendship, suggesting that after the Great War desexualized friendship was impossible. On the other hand, Forster and Woolf continued to believe in Moore’s concept that friendship and the “pleasure of human intercourse” are among “the most valuable things, which we can know or imagine” (Principia Ethica 188–89). In A Passage to India and The Waves Forster and Woolf, respectively, generatively expand and extend Moore’s philosophy of friendship to meet the complex demands of the modern world. Thus I suggest that Moore strongly influenced the Bloomsbury Group during every stage of its development, thereby complicating Leonard Woolf’s notion that Moore only influenced the group before the war. Finally, I refute allegations that the post-war modern novel is devoid of satisfying personal relationships by demonstrating that for Forster and Woolf, satisfying relationships remain a possibility.
Keywords: Bloomsbury Group,Forster, E. M.,Freud, Sigmund,Friendship,Lawrence, D. H.,Modernism,Moore, G. E., Woolf, Virginia