Abstract: Space division multiplexing (SDM) has become a promising approach in the telecom industry to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission and to resolve the approaching bandwidth crunch. Meanwhile, intermodal nonlinear effects in few-mode fibers (FMF) potentially provide some novel applications along with sophisticated optical signal processing functionality. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications with the returned echo analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this dissertation, we conduct theoretical and experimental study on the SDM systems using FMFs for both optical transmission and sensing applications. We first investigate a fast-convergence single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive-least-square algorithm for simultaneously compensating chromatic dispersion and differential mode group delay in a 224 Gbit/s six-mode polarization-division multiplexed 16 quadrature amplitude modulation FMF transmission system, which increases convergence speed by 53.7% over conventional frequency-domain least-mean square method, with 11% hardware complexity reduction over two-stage recursive-least square approach. We then present an ultrafast all-optical simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion scheme based on intermodal four-wave mixing, with the capability of switching polarization and mode degeneracy orientation in FMFs. The relation among the conversion efficiency, pump power and phase matching conditions is investigated in theory analysis and simulation. The cross-polarization modulation and cross-mode modulation can be achieved, by in the best case up to 50% conversion efficiency. Finally, a single-end FMF-based distributed sensing system that supports simultaneous temperature and strain monitoring is demonstrated via Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry and heterodyne detection. Theoretical analysis and experimental assessment of multi-parameter discriminative measurement applied to the distributed sensors are presented, which endows with good sensitivity characteristics and can prevent catastrophic failure in many applications.
Keywords: Coherent detection,Digital signal processing,Fiber optic sensor,Optical fiber transmission,Optical transceiver, Space division multiplexing