دینامیک و کنترل سیستم های پیل سوختی اکسید جامد یکپارچه: بار گذرا زیر و حذف اغتشاش
Abstract: Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems are an attractive, emerging alternative for clean electrical power generation. As a result of research primarily focused on cost reduction, materials, durability, system integration, and start-up, cost competitive integrated systems are becoming viable. However, minimal research has been conducted to understand and improve SOFC system transient load following and disturbance rejection capabilities. In this dissertation physical based dynamic models of integrated SOFC systems have been developed for transient analysis, controls development, and evaluation of SOFC system transient and disturbance rejection capabilities. Four fully integrated system dynamic models have been compared to experimental data, and are described as follows: (1) a 25 kilowatt Siemens integrated SOFC simple-cycle system; (2) a 220 kilowatt Siemens SOFC gas turbine hybrid system; (3) a Capstone 60 kilowatt recuperated gas turbine; and (4) a 5 kilowatt Plug Power stationary PEM fuel cell system. Results indicate the modeling methodology adopted and presented in detail can be utilized to develop models of integrated systems that well represent observed integrated system transient responses. Generic simple-cycle and hybrid-cycle integrated SOFC system models have been developed to investigate general fuel cell transients and controls. The challenge is to maintain the SOFC within operating requirements and minimize system transients during transient load demands and disturbances. Particular attention is paid to understand potential constraint violations, control structures, input and output pairings, characteristic time scales, and interactions among components and control actuators. A novel control structure is developed that synergistically integrates subsystem components of inherently different time scales, to improve the transient capability of SOFC systems. Control concepts to prevent fuel depletion, avoid gas turbine surge as well as to reduce fuel cell, and combustor temperature transients are developed. Controls developed in the generic system models are demonstrated in experimentally verified integrated system models, along with a conceptualized hundred megawatt class solid oxide fuel cell synchronous gas turbine hybrid system. Through simulation, transient understanding, and control development this dissertation demonstrates that even though SOFC systems have very stringent operating requirements, integrated controls can be developed and implemented to enable rapid SOFC system transient load following, and significant disturbance rejection capability.